Abies concolor Forest & Woodland Alliance
White fir forest and woodland

USDA Ecological Section Map

Summary Information

  • Primary Life FormTree
  • Elevation1400-2700 m
  • State RarityS4
  • Global RarityG4
  • DistributionUSA: AZ, CA, CO, NM, NV, OR, UT, WY. Mexico (NatureServe)
  • Endemic to CaliforniaNo
  • Endemic to California Floristic Province and DesertsNo
  • Date Added1995/11/01

Characteristic Species

Abies concolor is dominant or co-dominant in the tree canopy with Calocedrus decurrens, Cornus nuttallii, Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus chrysolepis and Quercus kelloggii.

Vegetation Layers

Trees < 60 m; canopy is intermittent to continuous. Shrubs are infrequent or common. Herbaceous layer is sparse or abundant.

Membership Rules

  • Abies concolor > 60% relative cover in canopy and most common tree species in reproduction layers; stands may be mixed with other conifer species, but if Pinus lambertiana is present, it is at < 1% absolute cover (Keeler-Wolf et al. 2003b).


Raised stream benches, terraces, slopes, ridges. Parent materials and soils are highly variable.

Other Habitat, Alliance and Community Groupings

MCV (1995) White fir series
NVCS (2009) Abies concolor forest alliance, Abies concolor giant forest alliance, Abies concolor woodland alliance
Calveg White fir
Holland Sierran white fir forest, Southern California white fir forest
Munz Coniferous forest
WHR White fir
CDFW CA Code 88.500.00

National Vegetation Classification Hierarchy

Formation Class Mesomorphic Tree Vegetation (Forest and Woodland)
Formation Subclass Temperate Forest
Formation Cool Temperate Forest
Division Western North America Cool Temperate Forest
Macro Group Californian-Vancouverian Montane and Foothill Forest
Group Californian montane conifer forest