Abies concolor - Pseudotsuga menziesii Forest & Woodland Alliance
White fir - Douglas fir forest and woodland

USDA Ecological Section Map

Summary Information

  • Primary Life FormTree
  • Elevation1000-1800 m
  • State RarityS4
  • Global RarityG5
  • DistributionUSA: AZ, CA, CO, NM, NV, OR, UT, WY. Mexico (NatureServe)
  • Endemic to CaliforniaNo
  • Endemic to California Floristic Province and DesertsNo
  • Date Added2009/09/01

Characteristic Species

Abies concolor and Pseudotsuga menziesii are co-dominant in the tree canopy with Calocedrus decurrens, Chrysolepis chrysophylla, Cornus nuttallii, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus ponderosa, Quercus chrysolepis and Quercus kelloggii.

Vegetation Layers

Trees < 60 m; canopy is intermittent to continuous. Shrubs are infrequent or common. Herbaceous layer is sparse or abundant.

Membership Rules

  • Abies concolor > 60% relative cover in canopy and most common tree species in reproduction layers; stands may be mixed with other conifer species, but if Pinus lambertiana is present, it is at < 1% absolute cover


Raised stream benches, terraces, slopes, ridges. Parent materials and soils are highly variable.

Other Habitat, Alliance and Community Groupings

MCV (1995) White fir series
NVCS (2009) Abies concolor forest alliance
Calveg Douglas-fir-White fir, Klamath mixed conifer, White fir
Holland Sierran mixed coniferous forest, Sierran white fir forest
Munz Coniferous forest
WHR White fir
CDFW CA Code 88.530.00

National Vegetation Classification Hierarchy

Formation Class Mesomorphic Tree Vegetation (Forest and Woodland)
Formation Subclass Temperate Forest
Formation Cool Temperate Forest
Division Western North America Cool Temperate Forest
Macro Group Californian-Vancouverian Montane and Foothill Forest
Group Upland Vancouverian mixed woodland and forest