Pinus jeffreyi Forest & Woodland Alliance
Jeffrey pine forest and woodland

USDA Ecological Section Map

Summary Information

  • Primary Life FormTree
  • Elevation60-2900 m
  • State RarityS4
  • Global RarityG4
  • DistributionUSA: CA, OR. Mexico (NatureServe)
  • Endemic to CaliforniaNo
  • Endemic to California Floristic Province and DesertsNo
  • Date Added1995/11/01

Characteristic Species

Pinus jeffreyi is dominant or co-dominant in the tree canopy with Abies concolor, Abies magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Juniperus grandis, Pinus attenuata, Pinus balfouriana, Pinus contorta ssp. murrayana, Pinus coulteri, Pinus monticola, Pinus ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus chrysolepis, Quercus kelloggii and Quercus wislizeni.

Vegetation Layers

Trees < 60 m; canopy is open to continuous. Shrub layer is sparse to intermittent. Herbaceous layer is sparse, abundant, or grassy.

Membership Rules

  • Pinus jeffreyi > 5% absolute cover in the tree canopy; Abies concolor and P. contorta ssp. murrayana ≤ 5% absolute cover; sometimes A. magnifica > 5% absolute cover, P. jeffreyi scattered (Potter 1994).
  • Pinus jeffreyi > 50% relative cover in the tree canopy or P. jeffreyi may have similar cover to that of other tree species including A. concolor, A. magnifica, and J. grandis (Keeler-Wolf et al. 2003b).


Raised stream benches, all slopes and aspects, ridges, plateaus. Soils are commonly infertile and shallow; substrates vary regionally.

Other Habitat, Alliance and Community Groupings

MCV (1995) Jeffrey pine series, Stands on San Benito Mountain, Jeffrey pine-ponderosa pine series
NVCS (2009) Pinus jeffreyi wooded herbaceous alliance, Pinus jeffreyi woodland alliance
Calveg Eastside pine, Jeffrey pine, Mixed conifer-Fir, Ultramafic mixed conifer
Holland Northern ultramafic Jeffrey pine forest, Southern ultramafic Jeffrey pine forest, Ultramafic mixed coniferous forest, Jeffrey pine forest, Jeffrey pine-fir forest
Munz Yellow pine forest
WHR Eastside pine, Jeffrey pine
CDFW CA Code 87.020.00

National Vegetation Classification Hierarchy

Formation Class Mesomorphic Tree Vegetation (Forest and Woodland)
Formation Subclass Temperate Forest
Formation Cool Temperate Forest
Division Western North America Cool Temperate Forest
Macro Group Californian-Vancouverian Montane and Foothill Forest
Group Californian montane conifer forest