Sequoia sempervirens Forest & Woodland Alliance
Redwood forest and woodland

USDA Ecological Section Map

Summary Information

  • Primary Life FormTree
  • Elevation10-975 m
  • State RarityS3.2
  • Global RarityG3
  • DistributionUSA: CA, OR (NatureServe)
  • Endemic to CaliforniaNo
  • Endemic to California Floristic Province and DesertsYes
  • Date Added1995/11/01

Characteristic Species

Sequoia sempervirens is dominant or co-dominant in the tree canopy with Abies grandis, Acer macrophyllum, Alnus rubra, Arbutus menziesii, Chrysolepis chrysophylla, Notholithocarpus densiflorus, Picea sitchensis, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Tsuga heterophylla and Umbellularia californica.

Vegetation Layers

Trees < 120 m tall; canopy is intermittent or continuous; it may be two tiered. Shrubs are infrequent or common. Herbaceous layer is absent or abundant.

Membership Rules

  • Sequoia sempervirens > 50% relative cover in the tree canopy, or > 30% relative cover with other conifers such as Pseudotsuga menziesii or with a lower tier of hardwood trees such as Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Keeler-Wolf et al. 2003a, Evens and Kentner 2006).


Raised stream terraces, benches, all slopes and aspects, ridges.

Other Habitat, Alliance and Community Groupings

MCV (1995) Redwood series
NVCS (2009) Sequoia sempervirens forest alliance, Sequoia sempervirens-Pseudotsuga menziesii forest alliance
Calveg Redwood-Douglas-fir, Redwood
Holland North Coast alluvial redwood forest, Upland redwood forest
Munz Redwood forest
WHR Redwood
CDFW CA Code 86.100.00

National Vegetation Classification Hierarchy

Formation Class Mesomorphic Tree Vegetation (Forest and Woodland)
Formation Subclass Temperate Forest
Formation Cool Temperate Forest
Division Western North America Cool Temperate Forest
Macro Group Vancouverian Rainforest
Group Vancouverian hypermaritime lowland rainforest