Picea breweriana Forest & Woodland Alliance
Brewer spruce forest and woodland

USDA Ecological Section Map

Summary Information

  • Primary Life FormTree
  • Elevation1150-2700 m
  • State RarityS2
  • Global RarityG3
  • DistributionUSA: CA, OR (NatureServe)
  • Endemic to CaliforniaNo
  • Endemic to California Floristic Province and DesertsYes
  • Date Added2009/09/01

Characteristic Species

Picea breweriana is dominant or co-dominant in the tree canopy with Abies concolor, Abies procera, Abies Ă—shastensis, Calocedrus decurrens, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Pinus contorta ssp. murrayana, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus monticola, Pinus ponderosa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Taxus brevifolia and Tsuga mertensiana.

Vegetation Layers

Trees < 60 m; canopy is intermittent to continuous. Shrub layer is sparse to intermittent. Herbaceous layer is sparse or abundant.

Membership Rules

  • Picea breweriana is > 30% relative cover and > 5% absolute cover in the tree layer (NatureServe 2007).


North slopes and rocky ridges. Parent materials and soils are highly variable.

Other Habitat, Alliance and Community Groupings

MCV (1995) Enriched stands in the Klamath Mountains
NVCS (2009) Picea breweriana forest alliance
Calveg Brewer spruce
Holland Siskiyou enriched coniferous forest, Salmon-Scott enriched coniferous forest
Munz Red fir forest
WHR Klamath mixed conifer
CDFW CA Code 83.300.00

National Vegetation Classification Hierarchy

Formation Class Mesomorphic Tree Vegetation (Forest and Woodland)
Formation Subclass Temperate Forest
Formation Cool Temperate Forest
Division Western North America Cool Temperate Forest
Macro Group Californian-Vancouverian Montane and Foothill Forest
Group Californian montane conifer forest